Organizational change initiatives are frequently led by small groups of orga­ nization members. In Quality of Work Life and similar organizational in­ volvement initiatives, for example, task forces composed of managers and hourly employees have typically led the change initiative (Moch & Bartunek, 1990). In schools, small leadership teams help create profes­ sional communities and school improvement initiatives (Scribner, Cockrell, Cockrell, & Valentine, 1999). Organizational transformation ef­ forts are typically led by groups of top managers (Nutt & Backoff, 1997). Or­ ganizational task forces play a leadership role in reengineering efforts (Hammer & Champy, 1994). In shared governance initiatives in hospitals, groups of nurses typically lead the change project (Rousseau & Tijoriwala, 1999). Small groups lead diversity initiatives in organizations (Alderfer, TVicker, Alderfer, & Tucker, 1988; Friedman, 1996). Small pilot groups typi­ cally lead organizational learning initiatives (Roth & Kleiner, 2000; Senge et al., 1999). Small groups of organization members even lead large group in­ terventions (Bunker & Alban, 1996). Small groups that initiate and lead or­ ganizational change efforts are often in existence for several years, including rotation and replacement of their membership.