We see parallels between the process we undertook to create this volume and the process a school might undertake to enhance or develop an effective reading program. A first parallel relates to the brief review of current reading research that was presented in Part I. Just as we collected and generated information and research results central to our task of building this book, teachers and schools must construct the knowledge that is relevant to their efforts and goals for school, classroom, and student. The sources that contribute to this constructed knowledge may be the results of careful teacher inquiry, of research published in refereed professional journals, or of engaging discussions of both. A second parallel relates to the accounting of current reading instruction practice. Earlier in this book we described the replication of The First R in which teachers and administrators were encouraged to engage in self-examination and self-evaluation. Similarly, schools and teachers must develop an accurate description of current reading instruction practice in order to determine existing strengths and challenges. We believe a survey of practice similar to that described in Part III enables careful accounting of what is done in schools and classrooms. In turn, this information can be used to determine if reading instruction is effective. We see a potential symbiosis in the two related processes of constructing research knowledge and examining practice: one may influence the other, and both may contribute to teachers' professional development. Combined, they place a school community in a good position for enacting positive change and the improvement of instruction and learning.