In the first two chapters of this book, I showed that Kohut viewed narcis­ sistic personality disorders as nonresponsive to the conventional interpre­ tations of conflict and defense derived from drive theory and ego psychology. He discovered that patients with these disorders, when cor­ rectly understood, nevertheless formed stable and recognizable transfer­ ences, which permitted psychoanalytic treatment to proceed without a need for technical modifications. Kohut originally identified two basic transfer­ ence patterns of mirroring and idealization, which represented the bipolar self, and first referred to these as narcissistic transferences. His original emphasis on narcissistic pathology and narcissistic transferences evolved into a broad concept of the self and the self’s requirements for responsive­ ness, the self-selfobject environment. Thus, he came to see mirroring and idealization (and later, twinship) as selfobject functions that sustain and invigorate self-esteem. The mobilization of these functions in treatment takes the form of a selfobject transference.