In the late nineteenth century, it could seem reasonable to see the rise of social democratic labor movements simply as a consequence of and reaction to industrialization. By the end of the twentieth century, this as no longer true, and we must now ask why no significant socialist parties linked to powerful labor movements have, at least so far, developed in some industrialized countries. As we now turn to such countries with industry and without socialism and also without sufficient government repression that could account for the absence of socialism, I shall emphasize why workers had no aristocratic institutions and values to react to. This will also throw light on the contrasting conditions that did give rise to socialist labor movements in Western Europe and Japan.