In chapter 5, we suggested that human beings, along with all other living things, are “programmed” by evolution to maximize their contribution to the future gene pool. We also proposed that much economic activity—along with other behaviors—can be interpreted as serving this end. Non-human species accomplish this by having as many offspring of optimal quality as possible, which may include additional investments of time and effort, including material resources such as the bequeathal of territories, nests, and so forth.