ABSTRACT

Too readily, it is forgotten or, better, ignored that the restoration of democracy in Germany came at the barrel of a gun and the point of a bayonet. Quite simply, the Nazi regime of 1933-1945 did not fold its tent in Hobbesian style as a consequence of internal upheaval but as a result of the might provided by the armies of the West at one end and Russia from the East. In an impassioned moment, I said to Lasky that the idea of regime change was not quite as innovative or contemporary, as President Bush would have us believe, but was a result of George Patton and his Third Army. And he replied in his sometime sly Pickwickian way, “Oh no, Irving, it was General Lucius Clay, the commander of military government in Germany.” Whatever the military force, the point remains the same: regime change, whether in political systems or in economic policies, are sometimes due to internal strains and at other times to external explosions. Winning battles and signing peace accords are not matters of universal law or regulation.