Since May 1, 2004, the Kaliningradskaja Oblast, which belongs to the Russian Federation, has been encircled by EU Member States. This date opened a new page in the tormented history of this stretch of land south of the estuary mouth of the river Memel. Until 1946, Kaliningrad was called Königsberg, and this city was the capital of East Prussia, which was a part of the German Empire. After World War II, the southern part of East Prussia fell to Poland, the north to the Soviet Union.