The contrast between individual psychology and social or group psychology, which at first glance may seem to be full of significance, loses a great deal of its sharpness when it is examined more closely. It is true that individual psy­ chology is concerned with the individual man and explores the paths by which he seeks to find satisfaction for his instinctual impulses: but only rarely and under certain exceptional conditions is individual psychology in a position to disregard the relations of this individual to others [italics mine-J.J.Z.]. In the individual's mental life someone else is invariably involved, as a model, as an object, as a helper, as an opponent; and so from the very first individual psy­ chology, in this extended but entirely justifiable sense of the word, is at the same time social psychology as well (Freud, 1921, p. 69).