Three of the key elements of accountability identified in Chapter 2 were as follows:

that custodial regimes, programmes and personnel must be culturally appropriate, from which it followed that the state must retain some control or at least be able to make some effective input into the staffing decisions of the private contractors;

that the distinction between the allocation and administration of punishment must, for profound constitutional and political reasons, be strictly maintained, with the private sector’s role being confined to administration;

that penal policy must not be driven by those who stand to make a profit from it.