We have seen how the American federal system came to be expanded to include the cities as a third partner. We have seen, too, something of the nature of the expanded partnership, and we have examined the views held by the participants. It remains to appraise the new, three-level federal system. What consequences have followed in the wake of the amplified federalism? What problems have risen from its practice? What is its significance for democratic government? Because the federal system does not stand still for description and evaluation, the answers to these and like questions must be couched in tentative, even speculative, terms. It is the purpose of this chapter to explore the three questions asked by way of appraisal, if only tentative appraisal, of the expanded federal system.