Since World War II the federal government has been the primary source of funding for research in the United States. Physicist Jerrold Zacharias, who helped develop radar during World War II and later worked on nuclear weapons, put it this way: “World War II was in many ways a watershed for American science and scientists. It changed the nature of what it means to do science, and radically altered the relationship between science and government” (quoted in Forman, 1987:152). This situation was not an accident. It was the result of a deliberate policy instituted by the government, upon the recommendation of the nation’s leading scientists.