In the United States I am usually viewed as an apologist for Japan. In Japan I am more often seen as a "Japan-Basher." To be sure, the Japanese consider me one of three Americans who gave them the concepts, provided the tools, and did the training that led to their economic rebirth after World War II (the other two are Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran). But ever since I coined the term "adversarial trade" (in the 1978 article reprinted as chapter 26 in this book) to describe Japan's economic policy, I am seen in Japan as a critic, and by no means a friendly one.