Although Pharaonic circumcision, generally referred to as “infibulation” by Western researchers, is claimed to have originated in Egypt, there is no direct evidence of its having been practiced there. Clitoral excision does, however, appear to have been practiced by both the ancient Egyptians, and Arabian peninsula tribes (in the pre-Islamic period) (Ghalioungui, 1963:95-97; Levy, 1962:252).