This chapter gives an insight into the complex and multi-dimensional issues of poverty and poverty alleviation in specific terms. Firstly, the concept of poverty, and how the poor live, earn and spend their money, is explained. Then the chapter, digs deeper into the specific circumstances of rural and urban poverty. As poverty alleviation is closely linked to economic growth, the third section is dedicated to this issue. Finally, the goals of poverty alleviation—manifested in the UN MDGs— are explained.