Chapter 1 argues the Indonesian killings should be understood as a case of genocide. It demonstrates how the Indonesian genocide files are able to prove military intent to “destroy in whole or in part” Indonesia’s communist group. It proposes Indonesia’s communist group fits the definition of a protected target group under the Genocide Convention. It also reflects on how religion was deliberately manipulated by the military during the time of the genocide in order to portray the killings as the result of popular spontaneous violence and to alleviate potential apprehension on the behalf of perpetrators.