This chapter focuses on theories that explain offending in terms of the processes that happen between people. Social learning theory suggests that criminality is a set of learned attitudes and behaviours and there is an exploration of the role mass media might play in offending. Social-psychological and sociological perspectives suggest that crime is a consequence of relationships between individuals and groups and there is a discussion of three influential theories, labelling, self-fulfilling prophecy and social identity theory. Finally, there is a review of research into the role of social variables including poverty and the neighbourhood in crime. As with the previous chapters, the line between psychologically and socially oriented theories is somewhat arbitrary and most of these theories refer to both individual and social processes.