International negotiation can be fraught with difficulties due to cultural, language and time zone barriers. Geert Hofstede (2003), a Dutch researcher, developed a framework for cross-cultural communication in the early 1970s based on 100,000 questionnaires completed by IBM employees across the globe. From this, Hofstede was able to quantify observable differences between cultures. This has subsequently become known as his ’5 dimensions’ theory and is still regarded as seminal today.