As markets became more open to competition because of the fall in tariffs and decline in support to farmers the government in Australia began to have a renewed look at the way in which it supported industrial development. One way in which governments decided to provide renewed assistance was in the form of the subsidy and granting of tax concessions on spending on research and development (R&D). Governments in Australia, at both the state and the national level, have a long history of involvement in the support of research that assists businesses. In Australia governments play an important role in supporting R&D by engaging in a range of activities. At the very basic level they do so by supporting the education and training of scientists and engineers and by funding high-value research that would not otherwise be undertaken by businesses, but is of assistance to businesses. They also contribute by funding research in universities and in other government research agencies. Not only does the Australian Government fund this sort of activity but state and territory governments also play an active role.