In recent years environmental demands have presented novel challenges in public policy as governments in Australia have tried to juggle the conflicting interests of environmental protection and employment and economic development. The government at all three levels in Australia (federal, state and local) has long been involved in the formulation and application of environmental policy, and government action on behalf of the environment clearly can have a beneficial effect on it. The effects of these policies are easy to see. The quality of air in Australia’s major cities, for instance, has been improved by the enforcement of emissions standards. Waterways are also cleaner because of the prohibitions on making use of them for the removal of waste products. Problems, however, still remain.