This chapter covers three broad approaches to psychotherapy that are related to one another in some ways and quite divergent in others. These approaches or domains have a historical appeal and have critically shaped the development of psychological therapies. A great deal of theorizing and research has been conducted on these approaches and each has been acknowledged as significant and original orientations for clinical psychologists. Their importance has resisted attempts to see them as a time-limited fashion therapy, and they continue to be central foci for psychological treatment. These three areas are psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapies, client-centered psychotherapy, and systems therapies. The learning objectives for this chapter are:

Develop an understanding of the workings of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapies.

Have an appreciation of the commonality of psychodynamic therapies and the research evidence for their effectiveness.

Understand what person-centered psychotherapy is and how therapists conduct such therapy.

Develop an understanding of the nature of family systems and how treatments have developed from this perspective.