It is estimated that less than 1 percent of the population has served in the military (Miles 2011, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense 2014, Pew Research Center 2011). As a result, the military experience is far removed from the average American citizen. One of the chief reasons for this civilian–military divide is the inception of the All-Volunteer Force (AVF) and the Selective Service System, which replaced the conscription or draft of the military force in 1973 (Rostker 2006a, 2006b). Although the AVF has played a significant role in increasing the professionalism of its service members, and in modernizing the U.S. fighting force, several constraints have been placed upon the equal and full participation of citizens (Fenner 1998).