In the previous chapter we saw how the abundance of biographical readings of Virgil, culminating in Broch’s The Death of Virgil, allowed for a variety of political approaches. This is evidenced in France by the warm reception shown both to Broch’s novel and to the criticism of Bellessort which influenced Brasillach so deeply. Both Brasillach and Broch depicted a culture in crisis, vulnerable to the voice of a leader who would restore order. Both Hitler and Mussolini called upon the Roman precedent as validation of their regimes. In Mein Kampf Hitler expounded upon the value of history in a humanist education and referred specifically to the examination of works from antiquity which could shed light upon current events in Europe. In Italy the Fascists initiated school reforms in 1923 which incorporated compulsory study of Latin in a system where the grammatical exercises constantly drew comparisons between the ancient world and the present day.