The most recent (and most extended) study of the cinema of the Transition is included in a volume with a significant title: Historia(s) del cine español: la nueva memoria (‘History/ies of Spanish Cinema: The New Memory’, Castro de Paz, Pérez Perucha, Zunzunegui 178–253). Pablo Pérez Rubio and Javier Hernández Ruiz call attention to the many paradoxes of production in the period they take to be 1973– 83. Although the authors claim not to be ‘obsessed’ with periodization (Pérez Rubio and Hernández Ruiz 242, n. 5), they offer a certain justification for dating the start of the Transition, in the cinematic sector at least, to before the death of Franco in 1975, which we explored in the previous chapter of this book. Thus the 1970s as a whole were characterized by an increasing extension of what could be said on film, giving rise to an unprecedented originality and variety (180). And in the last years of the Dictatorship, a political opposition was already emerging into the public sphere, taking advantage of official ‘instability’ and internal Francoist conflict between reformists and the bunker, to ‘make its voice heard’ in varied forms of cultural production, albeit barely tolerated by the more reactionary sectors (181).