Iqbal believes that the mind of the modern Muslim man has been obscured and confused by a number of non-Islamic thought forms. This shows a certain parallel with Kierkegaard’s understanding of the problems of the modern Christian world and Danish society. This chapter will put Iqbal into a cultural and philosophical context with a focus on his view of the problems of the modern Muslim world of his day and his solutions for them. This will include Iqbal’s critique of Greek philosophy, Islamic mysticism or what he calls ‘Pantheistic Sufism’, and traditional Muslim scholars. This chapter will also discuss Iqbal’s solution for the modern Muslim world as the development of the Muslim self and his understanding of the main characteristics of the human being.