This book started out speculating on the transformations cities are undergoing in the era of globalization, as 'transnational spaces' are being created within the urban space, building a link between the 'local' and the 'global'. These transformations are instituting a new urban order, as social connections between local and global actors are now intermingling in the urban space, redefining its metabolism and shape. This book reflects on the rise of a vicious circle of worsening urban environment and growing consumption of environmental flows such as energy, water and waste thereby taking place. And it suggests that, running counter to this vicious circle, there is also a virtuous circle of urban environmental reforms emerging in the era of globalization.