Throughout the 1980s and 1990s Amsterdam consolidated its position as an international business capital, attracting an increasing number of corporate headquarters. During these decades, environmental topics grew into a key theme of both corporate and governmental agendas in the Netherlands owing to a number of factors: conventions regarding global warming, stricter regulations and higher fees for the consumption of energy and water, pressure from civil society, and so on. As a result, and as the city's stock of office buildings started to grow, environmental management practices stemming from global and local actors began to intermingle in Amsterdam: first, local environmental policy agencies, which had traditionally played a prime role in the city's development, started to prompt a number of new strategies to manage its environmental and infrastructure challenges, made more pressing by the increasing internationalization of its business activities. And second, several multinational companies, which migrated to the city, also started to advance environmental strategies for their offices, all in all boosting the ecological reshuffle of Amsterdam's office buildings.