This chapter focuses on the Arab education system in Israel. To date, the education system in Israel maintains two separate education systems for its citizens: one for Palestinian-Israelis and another for Jewish-Israelis. Thus, the education system for Palestinian-Israelis, often called “the Arab sector” by Israelis, is an integral part of the Israeli system, overseen by the Israeli Ministry of Education. Nevertheless, within the Israeli system, it has special properties because of the fact that it serves the Arab minority of the state. Before we delve into the various characteristics of the Arab education system, it is important to note that the education system in East Jerusalem is, officially, a separate system.