Although all historical events have consequences, certain events or issues in the past are particularly profound in their effects or historical reach. These events or issues remain controversial because they are divisive, painful, or ambiguous in the moral responses they elicit in people today. Depending on the social identities, ideological perspectives, or values of the individual, the event or issue can be interpreted and given meaning in very different ways. For this reason, difficult history—particularly history that is controversial—naturally points to connections between the past and the world today. History movies can serve as dramatic 138tools in the classroom to focus student attention on controversies in the past and think about their legacy for the present and future. The following case explores how film can be used to teach about difficult history, focusing on a unit that used Kingdom of Heaven (2005) to teach about the medieval Crusades (1095–1291) and religious conflict in the Middle East (see Figure 8.1 and Table 8.2 for a description of the film).