As noted, public diplomacy has flourished in a globalised era that emphasises on interconnectedness, démocratisation, transparency, openness and innovation. Although a fiercely contested concept it is, at base, quite simple to understand (Gilboa 2008). Evans, for example, defines public diplomacy as ‘an exercise in persuasion and influence that extends beyond traditional diplomacy by leveraging a much larger cast of players both inside and outside government’ (Evans and Grant 1995, 66). It is a prime example of new, twenty-first century diplomacy as a state and non-state endeavour, a point that Gregory (2011) also notes. For him, public diplomacy is

an instrument used by states, associations of states, and some sub-state and non-state actors to understand cultures, attitudes and behaviour; to build and manage relationships; and to influence thoughts and mobilize actions to advance their interests and values.

(Gregory 2011, 343)