287 The pigs escaped from my grandfather’s farm while my parents held their wedding reception in the farmhouse. There was no question among the revelers that the wayward swine posed a problem, but as they slogged through rain and mud, the men in tuxedos had differing perspectives on how best to remedy the situation. Some pushed pigs, some pulled, some prodded them with sticks. Others pronounced that the pigs would return to the pen if left alone. With a combination of these approaches, the pigs were eventually placed under control, whether by the most efficient means or not. Environmental policy is much the same: there is broad agreement that environmental losses are a problem, but whether it is best to push decision makers with command-and-control policies, pull them with incentives, or prod them with the sticks of litigation and punishment is another issue. Some feel that if left alone, the market will attain efficiency on its own.