This book began by identifying two questions that have motivated scholars in science and religion over the past half century: “is it theoretically justifiable to bring scientific and religious beliefs into dialogue?” and “can theology be rational in the same way as science?” This chapter summarizes the book’s argument before turning to the question: where should methodological debates go from here? If the methodological work by scholars of science and religion are based on faulty assumptions about the nature of science, then does the field itself lack the intellectual legitimacy that scholars have been seeking?