This chapter examines the second component of Japan’s national security policy in relation to China, that is, political attitudes and their impact upon domestic credibility. The political attitudes of a country predispose images, perceptions and policies toward other countries. Japan’s political attitudes toward China changed considerably from the 2000s. Before the 1990s, Japanese conservative prime ministers and political elites avoided the politicization of history and the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands dispute for the sake of friendship with China. However, since the 2000s, the rise of Japanese neo-conservatism (JNC) was observed and its proponents such as Junichro Koizumi (2001–06) and Shinzo Abe (2006–07, 2012–) became prime ministers. JNC attitudes toward China strongly came to influence Japan’s national security policy. Its political elites have adopted a non-concessional attitude toward China over history issues and the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands, which worsened Japan–China security relations. Those attitudes provoked anti-China feelings in the public.