It is widely believed that differentiated teaching and learning has the potential to maximise the learning skills of all learners and help each fulfil his/her potential. The findings of a major study on differentiation involving 70,000 students in a variety of settings and contexts (McQuarrie, McRae and Stack-Cutler 2008) indicated that effective differentiation is shaped by ongoing assessment and that differentiated instruction improves student self-confidence and engagement, enhancing the potential to reach all learners. Additionally, the study found that differentiation helps learners become more self-directed and metacognitive. In relation to students who have additional or special needs, the study indicated that targeted differentiated teaching can be very beneficial.