During the last several decades, researchers, program developers, policymakers and a host of other players in most nations in the Western world have turned their attention to the schools. A growth industry has been created around attempts at school reform. Although reformers have been around since schools began, the current pressures for reform that began shortly after the Second World War and were driven by political, economic and educational forces, have now taken on more serious overtones as nations struggle to compete in the global marketplace. Schools have once again become the focal point of social, political, and economic concerns.