This opening chapter aims to set the scene of the whole book by critically reviewing the conceptualisation, foundations, and models of early childhood curriculum (ECC) within the context of globalisation and internationalisation. First, it thoroughly analyses extant ECC literature to review and reconceptualise the key concepts and major foundations of ECC from the multiple perspectives of child development (together with the principle of developmentally appropriate practices), social culture, play, and knowledge building. Second, it comprehensively introduces and criticises world-renowned ECC models and approaches such as the Montessori Method, the Reggio Emilia approach, the HighScope curriculum, and the Project Approach. Some new ECC models – such as the Story Approach to Integrated Learning, Learning Stories, and Anji Play – are also included. The general model of integrated curriculum is also described in this chapter. Third, it summarises the paradigm shift in ECC studies, from a developmental perspective to a sociocultural one, against the backdrop of globalisation and internationalisation.