Chapter 10 concludes the book, focusing on the external dimension of the PRLPs in order to understand the process of political disintermediation that opens the way to a direct appeal to the people. We will look at the PRLPs communication strategies, the characteristics found in their experiences at all levels of government (national and local), and their declared positions with respect to their relations with the European Union. These issues are important for understanding the specificity of these parties with respect to the traditional European left and radical left parties.