Many thoughtful people have tried to prove that blacks (habśī) have the same ability to achieve civilization (śā’istagī) as the other human races, and that they can compete with the latter (aur nasloñ kī hamsarī kar sakte heiñ). In my view, these attempts are not convincing. As a matter of fact, when evidence that people with black skin are inferior in intellect (‘aql-o dānā’ī) is brought before these authors, they are unable to give any answers. That is, they cannot explain why these stupid people (jāhil qaum), residing all over Africa live in a state of perpetual wildness (davamī vaihśat), which is not the case for the [African] Muslims and the Ethiopians, who actually descend from the people of white color and who have acquired at least some distinction in terms of civilization. 2 There are many fertile places in Africa, with trees that facilitate the possibilities to bear the hot climate, rivers and lakes. One such lake, called Chad, has built up an early commercial route in Africa and has permitted the economy to progress. In addition to that, blacks have always enjoyed independence and peace in their country. Nevertheless, despite these favorable conditions, this peace and freedom loving people did not give up its savage state. They never tasted the fruit of knowledge in their country. The mark of the blessing that Noah gave to Śām is still present in this race. Black people did have the ability to become educated but up to the present day it has not occured that any black made any form of research (muhaqīq) or uttered anything intelligent or learned. The situation of the yellow people, that is, the people of the Mongolian race is different altogether. It is known that this race spread until America and can even boast having civilized Mexico and Peru. However, let us now consider the degree of civilization up to 148which this race has progressed when it has made itself a name in China. The Chinese introduced big innovations such as gunpowder, cannons, printing and magnet-agopuncture. But even if we accept that they really have invented all these things we have to ask what advantages these inventions brought them in the end. Their cannon factories are not better than those of the British. But those of the British are also not better than those of their neighboring nations (qaum), even though the latter are inferior to the British as far as intellect and discernment are concerned (fehm-o furāsat). The Chinese print books but they write their language using “signs,” not letters. [The author then briefly dwells on the argument that a language written in such a way is not practical]. In addition to this, the Chinese are excessively attached to their traditions. In fact if someone introduced an innovation, they would never welcome it. That’s why they do not progress. Now their situation is so bad that they have started migrating to Europe. It is hoped that this will help them making some progress in future.