Increasingly today almost the most important part of a school’s responsibility to its pupils is seen to be the provision of advice and guidance, help with choice of careers, remedial work where necessary for those who have fallen behind in their studies, and making sure that physical handicap or lack of material resources does not mean loss of opportunities to achieve a full and useful life. Good teachers have always known this, and have acted in their own way to supply their pupils’ needs; but private enterprise in such matters can be selective in its application, and so today most good schools have some more or less organized way of ensuring pastoral care for their pupils, while the State itself, through its welfare services, deals with financial or physical needs.