This chapter discusses the ancient Mediterranean religions of Egypt, Greece, and Rome. The Egyptian pantheon changed over the very long course of the culture's history. Ancient Egyptian beliefs reflect the ubiquity of divine power. The pantheon expanded to include Geb and his consort Nut along with their children Osiris, Isis, Seth, and Nephthys. The Greek pantheon reflects a twofold division: Olympian gods who reside in the upper sky, on the surface of the earth, under the ocean, and chthonic powers that exist beneath the earth. The most archaic account of the Roman pantheon included Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus, which was later extended to include Janus and Vesta. The chapter covers each of the Mediterranean cultures and represents patriarchal social systems that assume that women performed actions associated with the home. The family cult of Mediterranean religions was cantered on the hearth with its fire, a place at which family members could worship their gods and ancestors in an intimate setting.