At his homecoming in the autumn of 19 BC, Augustus was in a much stronger position than at any of his previous returns to Rome, and from then onwards, as a result of the honours and powers that were granted to him, his supremacy was finally assured.1 It had already been clearly demonstrated that when he was absent the state did not run quite so smoothly. Whilst acceptance of Augustus’ pervasive influence may not have been quite as universal as he liked to claim, at least his power was legally sanctioned, and preserved by a combination of determination, alert watchfulness, and the latent if reluctant use of force. Military strength was never mentioned, but no-one could be in any doubt that should such drastic measures prove necessary, Augustus would not have hesitated to use armed force. The confirmation of his powers from 19 BC onwards meant that he never had to resort to such crude methods.