This chapter examines the public policy environment around labor migration and population displacement. It discusses the early evolution of migration policy; how this policy is tied to the labor needs of nations and concerns about irregular migration and how the displacement of populations because of war, the environment, and human crisis is central to global migration policymaking. The chapter describes the irregular migration and considers its relationship to issues of border control and border security. It deals with the insidious problem of human smuggling and trafficking, a growing human rights issue. The chapter explores the issue related to migration policy formation and the roles of both international institutions and national governments in migrant regulation. It talks about the policy strategies specifically directed toward migration that aim to prevent irregular migration and monitor low-skilled workers. The chapter analyzes how migration policy occurs at different scales of political geography.