Benevolence is man’s mind, and righteousness is man’s path. Mencius (1895: 11)

3.1 Introduction Culture, we argue, is a key variable in the understanding of management, in terms of both theory and practice. It is forged by history and in turn shapes institutions. This chapter sets out to examine the degree to which it may define and even determine the nature of management in China. It will seek to understand how far traditional indigenous values still continue to influence business, economics and society in general and how they shape management in the Middle Kingdom in particular, as indeed they do across Asia (see Zhu and Warner 2008; Warner 2013a). Many cross-cultural studies have been conducted over the years (see Leung and White 2004) but we will focus here to start with on one major contribution which has had the greatest impact, at least as far as contemporary studies of Chinese culture in an Asian context are concerned, in the last past decades.