In this book we aimed to reveal new prospects for empirical social psychology. In a previously published work entitled The Science of Stories (László, 2008), we established the theoretical framework of narrative psychology and developed a methodology which enables the objective assessment of personal identity states by means of computerized content analysis of life historical narratives. This time we have introduced concepts and methods for the investigation of individuals’ identity who behave as members of a group having a history. As others take a fundamental part in the formation of one’s self (Mead, 1934), likewise ways of identity formation of groups including nations may only be understood when considering their relations to other groups. Regarding nations, significant other groups are presented by groups in conflict with the ingroup (Triandafyllidou, 1998) while information on the psychological processes of identity construction is provided by historical narratives on past relations between the national ingroup and outgroups.