In 1936, as Hitler anticipated that the Berlin Olympic Games would be a platform for showcasing the superiority of Aryan peoples, Black track and fi eld athlete Jesse Owens denied him that opportunity. Owens won four gold medals and handily defeated Hitler’s Aryan athletes. Th e Olympic Games of 1936 were considered by many to be a victory of democracy over Nazism. Similarly, the 1938 victory of the Black boxer, Joe Louis, over the German Max Schmeling is viewed by sport historians as a critical moment in the history of race and sport in America (Randolph Sugar 2006). Th ese individualistic feats, as well as the increased presence and success of Black college athletes across the North, were part of and refl ected a shift in attitudes among Whites toward Blacks (Spivey 1983).