In this chapter the term online learning refers to the use of both web-based and app-based technologies in the delivery of educational services. Online learning includes the use of communications technologies to facilitate online learning communities of peers and educators. The chapter surveys online learning practices and discusses their benefits and limitations. It explores on significant issues relating to online music teaching, and how creativity and performance skills are managed where face-to-face contact is limited or absent. The chapter provides a brief overview of the six elements for designing effective online learning resources. Until the popularization of the massive open online courses (MOOCs) in the late 2000s, mainstream education had not been particularly quick to embrace online learning strategies. The chapter canvasses various learning activities and provides an overview of the tools and the types of functionality provided by online technologies.