Italy had emerged from the 1815 settlement, drawn up at Vienna by the representatives of the powers which had defeated Napoleon, without any form of political identity. Even the loose Confederation which the German peoples enjoyed (or, rather, suffered under) was lacking in Italy. The Italian peninsula consisted of the two provinces of Lombardy and Venetia, which were integral parts of the Habsburg Monarchy; the wholly independent states of the Kingdoms of Piedmont-Sardinia and Naples; the Papal States under the sovereignty of the pope; the rather smaller Grand Duchy of Tuscany; the yet smaller Duchies of Parma and Modena,

and three or four minute states without political significance. For all intents and purposes, then, ‘Italy’ was a term for the cultural and geographical unit which consisted of six independent states and an im portant part of the Austrian empire.