Industrialization in India has taken place as a conscious policy of growth under the leadership of indigenous political elite, after a long period of colonial rule. While some problems were specific to India, arising from the inherited social structure and cultural patterns, many were comparable to those found in other countries at a similar stage of development. In particular, India has tended to become the test-case for economic development without social revolution, within the framework of a mixed economy. The experience of industrialization in India is characteristic of the difficulties faced by a newly-independent underdeveloped country. The effect of the changes made in the land system was to generalize private and contractual relations. Land became a commodity, instead of a communal asset which was part of an unchanging way of life. Agrarian development in India, while significant in terms of production, has not complemented industrialization to the same degree as in the countries of developed capitalism.