The Emperor abuses his courtiers, and they revenge themselves on their subordinates, who, not finding words sufficiently energetic, raise their hands against those who, in their turn, finding the hand too light, arm themselves with a stick, which further on is replaced with a whip. The peasant is beaten by everybody: by his master, when he condescends so far to demean himself; by the steward and starosta [headman], by the first passer-by, if he be not a peasant. The poor fellow on his part has no means to indemnify himself, except his wife and his horse; and accordingly, most women in Russia are beaten, and it excites one's pity to see how the horses are used.2