A third theme to emerge from the Industrial Revolution was urbanism ... Prior to the early nineteenth century the city, insofar as it was dealt with at all in humanistic writing, was seen as the repository of civilised graces and virtues ... But actual revulsion for the city, fear of it asa force in culture, and forebodings with respect to the psychological conditions attending it - these are states of mind hardly known before the nineteenth century ... It is, as we shall repeatedly see, the city that forms the context of most sociological propositions relating to disorganisation, alienation, and mental isolation - all stigmata of loss of community and membership [ ... ] In the beginning, radicals and conservatives were largely united in their distaste for urbanism ... But as the century progresses, one cannot but be struck by the increasingly 'urban' character of radicalism [ ... ] Marx regarded the onset of urbanism as oneof the blessings of capitalism, something to :be spread even further in the future socialist order ... If modern radicalism is urban in its mentality, conservatism is largely rural.