ABSTRACT

However numerous the Turkish population may have been, it is clear that there were still many non-Muslims, who were probably the majority almost everywhere - in the proportion of ten to one, according to William of Rubruck. It has been shown on several occasions above that in spite of, or sometimes because of, the depredations committed by the first conquerors, the natives had not been systematically hostile to them, but that they had viewed the conquest less as an ordeal for themselves than a punishment for Byzantium, and moreover that some Byzantines had called Turks in aid against other Byzantines; thus there had everywhere definitely been collusion as much as resistance to the Turkish conquest. It has been shown that in the regime as it was organized little by little after the conquest, there stood native notables, even Greeks, as well as refugees from outside, beside the Muslim masters, just as in other Muslim countries. All this is enough to suggest that, without failing to recognize the sufferings in the eleventh century and some subsequent tribulations or difficulties, there was on the whole in Turkey, when it was organized, a symbiosis akin to what existed in other Muslim countries but perhaps even better, and certainly more wide-ranging by reason of the numbers involved. It is unnecessary to return to the social aspects of the regime, but a word should be said about the religious situation.